Basic Linux Networking tips and tricks part-5: tcpdump

tcpdump-logo

Here is another post of the series on basic network troubleshooting and tools under Linux.

In this post, I will talk about tcpdump.


Other posts of the series

This post is part of a series of basic Linux Networking tips and tricks.
The other posts of this series are:

  1. The ip and nmcli commands
  2. The mtr command
  3. The ss and netstat commands
  4. The curl command
  5. tcpdump

 


Introduction

I think the most essential element to debug a network problem is a packet capture tool or sniffer, and the most common one on Linux distributions is tcpdump.

Tcpdump prints out a description of the contents of packets on a network interface that matches an expression; the description is preceded by a time stamp, printed, by default, as hours, minutes, seconds, and fractions of a second since midnight.

Here, I tried to write a complete tcpdump tutorial with many examples and filtering details. From the basics to everyday examples, including the much more advanced filtering options. However, I won’t explain how to install it. It depends on the Linux distribution you are using and it is available as a standard package on almost all of them. So the installation is very straightforward. Moreover, there are already thousands of guides on the Internet about it. So we will start with the fact that tcpdump is installed and working.

 

Basics

Capture all packets from specific interface (-i interface_name_or_id)

First, you have to know the name of the local interfaces. We saw this in this article: Basic Linux Networking tips and tricks part-1: ip and nmcli commands.

Type ip link show up to see your current up interfaces of your system, for example:

$ ip link show up
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
2: enp0s3: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000
link/ether 08:00:27:db:88:56 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
Then, for this example, here is how to capture packets from the Ethernet interface enp0s3:
$ sudo tcpdump -i enp0s3

The other method is to use tcpdump to get the interfaces list, with the command: tcpdump -D, this can be useful on systems that don’t have other command to list them:

$ sudo tcpdump -D
1.enp0s3 [Up, Running, Connected]
2.any (Pseudo-device that captures on all interfaces) [Up, Running]
3.lo [Up, Running, Loopback]
4.bluetooth-monitor (Bluetooth Linux Monitor) [Wireless]
5.nflog (Linux netfilter log (NFLOG) interface) [none]
6.nfqueue (Linux netfilter queue (NFQUEUE) interface) [none]
7.dbus-system (D-Bus system bus) [none]
8.dbus-session (D-Bus session bus) [none]

Then, it is possible to use the interface name or number, still with the -i argument, like:

$ sudo tcpdump -i 1
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v[v]... for full protocol decode
listening on enp0s3, (...)

Please note that for clarity, I have removed the interface filter in the examples below. But in many situations, it is better to specify the interface you want to “listen” on in addition to others filters.

 

Capture Packets and write to a file (-w /path/to/file) or read from a file (-r /path/to/file)

Tcpdump can also be run with the -w flag, which causes it to save the packet data to a file, for later analysis. For example, to capture packets from a specific interface and write this into a file (using the .pcap extension is recommended):

$ sudo tcpdump -w test.pcap

Then, you can read this file with an application like Wireshark, or also with tcpdump. For this, we can use the -r flag, which causes tcpdump to read from a saved packet file rather than to read packets from a network interface:

$ sudo tcpdump -r test.pcap

Capture Packets and write to multiple files (-w -C -W) in a “rotating” buffer

The filecount (-W) option used in conjunction with the file_size (-C) and write (-w) options, allow writing multiple files of a pre-defined maximum size. Then, at the end of writing the last file, tcpdump will start to overwrite the files from the beginning, creating a ‘rotating’ buffer of n files.

Let’s take an example by writing 10 files of around 1MByte each. “Around”, because the units of file_size are millions of bytes: 1’000’000 bytes, not 1’048’576 bytes:

$ sudo tcpdump -C 1 -W 10 -w test.pcap

In addition, tcpdump will name the files with enough trailing 0s to support the maximum number of files, allowing them to sort correctly.

 

Capture Packets and write to multiple files, created every x time, with a timestamp into the filename (-G -w)

Here is an example to create a capture file every 10 seconds, so 6 capture files per minute, indefinitely, with the Month – Day – Hour – Minute – Seconds timestamp into the file name:

$ sudo tcpdump -G 10 -w test-%m-%d-%H-%M-%S.pcap

In this case, the -G option is equal to 10 seconds. So every 10 seconds we will have a new file.

Please note that if we do not specify the Month and Day options, tcpdump will overwrite the files after 24 hours.

 

Read from multiple files (-V /path/to/file)

It can also be run with the -V flag, which causes it to read a list of saved packet files. In all cases, only packets that match the expression will be processed by tcpdump.

For this, first, you have to create a flat-file including the .pcap files you want to read. For example, if my .pcap files are: test.pcap0, test.pcap1, test.pcap2… test.pcap9. I create a .txt file like this:

test.pcap0
test.pcap1
test.pcap2
test.pcap3
test.pcap4
test.pcap5
test.pcap6
test.pcap7
test.pcap8
test.pcap9

And then, I can read all at once with:

$ sudo tcpdump -V test.txt

Of course, the purpose of reading multiple files is to filter the content to search for something specific. We will see the different filters below.

 

Capture Packets from a specific source or destination IP (host address_or_fqdn)

$ sudo tcpdump host 192.168.1.1
$ sudo tcpdump host 2001:4860:4860::8888

Capture Packets, filtered by source or destination IP (src address or dst address)

$ sudo tcpdump src 192.168.1.1
$ sudo tcpdump dst 2001:4860:4860::8888

Capture Packets, filtered by network source or destination IP (net network)

$ sudo tcpdump net 192.168.0.0/24
$ sudo tcpdump net 2001:4860:4860::/64

Capture Packets, without converting host addresses, port or protocols to names (-n)

By default, tcpdump will resolve the protocols to names, here is an example:

$ sudo tcpdump dst port 80
14:17:37.124655 IP manjaro-xfce-20.local.32812 > zrh04s15-in-f4.1e100.net.http: Flags [S], seq 1529204080, win 64240, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 766022782 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0
14:17:37.125833 IP manjaro-xfce-20.local.32812 > zrh04s15-in-f4.1e100.net.http: Flags [.], ack 64192002, win 64240, length 0
14:17:37.126166 IP manjaro-xfce-20.local.32812 > zrh04s15-in-f4.1e100.net.http: Flags [P.], seq 0:78, ack 1, win 64240, length 78: HTTP: GET / HTTP/1.1

$ sudo tcpdump -n dst port 80 
14:17:13.543893 IP 10.0.2.15.32808 > 172.217.168.68.80: Flags [S], seq 2815315033, win 64240, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 765999201 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0
14:17:13.544509 IP 10.0.2.15.32808 > 172.217.168.68.80: Flags [.], ack 64064002, win 64240, length 0
14:17:13.544616 IP 10.0.2.15.32808 > 172.217.168.68.80: Flags [P.], seq 0:78, ack 1, win 64240, length 78: HTTP: GET / HTTP/1.1

Capture Packets, filtered by port number or port range (port port_number | portrange port_number-port_number) – can be combined with dst or src

If we do not specify the source (src) or destination (dst) port, tcpdump will capture both directions.

$ sudo tcpdump port 443
$ sudo tcpdump dst port 443
$ sudo tcpdump src portrange 1024-65535

Capture Packets, filtered by protocol (icmp, tcp, udp, ip, ip6)

We can filter icmp, udp, tcp packets, but also IPv4 (ip) or IPv6 (ip6) only packets:

$ sudo tcpdump icmp
$ sudo tcpdump udp
$ sudo tcpdump tcp
$ sudo tcpdump ip
$ sudo tcpdump ip6

Capture Packets, and exit after n packets (-c count)

Exit after receiving count packets.

$ sudo tcpdump -c 10
 (...)
 10 packets captured
 17 packets received by filter
 0 packets dropped by kernel
$

 

Capture Packets, and print the data of each packet (-X)

To print the data of each packet (minus its link level header) in hex and ASCII.

Here is an example, with ICMP pings to 8.8.8.8, including a specific content in the ICMP data pattern:

$ ping -p "cafe" 8.8.8.8 
PATTERN: 0xcafe
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 octets de 8.8.8.8 : icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 temps=4.10 ms
64 octets de 8.8.8.8 : icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 temps=4.06 ms
(...)

And the result of the tcpdump gives a lot of coffee (in french):

$ sudo tcpdump -X icmp
(...)
11:00:06.783376 IP manjaro-xfce-20.local > dns.google: ICMP echo request, id 3, seq 1, length 64
0x0000: 4500 0054 8110 4000 4001 9d7a 0a00 020f E..T..@.@..z....
0x0010: 0808 0808 0800 b1ea 0003 0001 96d4 c160 ...............`
0x0020: 0000 0000 06f4 0b00 0000 0000 cafe cafe ................
0x0030: cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe ................
0x0040: cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe ................
0x0050: cafe cafe 

The option -x (lowercase) gives the output with the hex part only:

$ sudo tcpdump -x icmp
(...)
11:08:54.070651 IP manjaro-xfce-20.local > dns.google: ICMP echo request, id 5, seq 1, length 64
0x0000: 4500 0054 d4c5 4000 4001 49c5 0a00 020f
0x0010: 0808 0808 0800 dbc6 0005 0001 a6d6 c160
0x0020: 0000 0000 d713 0100 0000 0000 cafe cafe
0x0030: cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe
0x0040: cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe cafe
0x0050: cafe cafe

And the -A option, gives the output with the ASCII part only:

$ sudo tcpdump -A icmp

 

Capture Packets, filtered by size (less | greater size)

If you are looking for packets of a specific size, you can use the terms “less” or “greater”. Here is an example:

$ ping 8.8.8.8 -s 1
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) 1(29) bytes of data.
9 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63
9 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63

Here, we have to take into consideration the size of the headers: Ethernet without CRC (14 bytes) + IPv4 (20 bytes) + ICMP (8 bytes). So, this ICMP ping packet, with 1 byte of data (-s 1), will make 43-bytes in total. Let’s try to see it:

$ sudo tcpdump -i 1 less 43
(...)
11:17:30.051339 IP manjaro-xfce-20.local > dns.google: ICMP echo request, id 10, seq 52, length 9
11:17:31.055479 IP manjaro-xfce-20.local > dns.google: ICMP echo request, id 10, seq 53, length 9

At this point, you should be thinking “But if the packet is 43-bytes, why does less work?!?

In fact:

  • less length, is equivalent to “less than or equal to” length (<=)
  • greater length, is equivalent to “greater than or equal to” length (>=)

 

Capture Packets, filtered by MAC-address (ether host mac) and display link-level header (-e)

We can use the ether host keyword to filter traffic capture to a single MAC address or to broadcasts, for example:

$ sudo tcpdump ether host ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
08:40:48.622995 ARP, Request who-has 10.0.2.20 tell manjaro-xfce-20.local, length 28
08:40:49.696943 ARP, Request who-has 10.0.2.20 tell manjaro-xfce-20.local, length 28

Here, I started the capture and tried to ping an IP on the same network, to catch the broadcast ARP packets.

But then we can use the -e option to print the link-level header on each dump line:

$ sudo tcpdump ether host ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff -e
08:46:06.625825 08:00:27:db:88:56 (oui Unknown) > Broadcast, ethertype ARP (0x0806), length 42: Request who-has 10.0.2.21 tell manjaro-xfce-20.local, length 28

With the -n option, it’s a bit easier to read:

$ sudo tcpdump ether host ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff -en
08:47:53.609426 08:00:27:db:88:56 > ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, ethertype ARP (0x0806), length 42: Request who-has 10.0.2.21 tell 10.0.2.15, length 28

 

 

More advanced options and filters

Combine filters (and, or, not)

The ability to use the above filters is one thing, but the real power of tcpdump comes from the ability to combine these options to isolate what you are looking for. To do this, we can use the logical functions “and“, “or” and “not“. We can use parentheses (less recommended), quotes, or double quotes as separators.

$ sudo tcpdump ip6 and tcp
$ sudo tcpdump src portrange 1024-65535 and dst port 443
$ sudo tcpdump tcp and \( src portrange 1024-65535 and dst port 443 \)
$ sudo tcpdump tcp and 'src portrange 1024-65535 and dst port 443'
$ sudo tcpdump tcp and "src portrange 1024-65535 and dst port 443"

 

Adding verbosity to the output (-v, -vv, -vvv)

Tcpdump has three levels of verbosity. You can add more verbosity by adding additional “v” to the command-line options:

When parsing and printing, the -v option produces slightly more verbose output. For example, the time to live, identification, total length, and options in an IP packet are printed. Also enables additional packet integrity checks such as verifying the IP and ICMP header checksum. When writing to a file with the -w option and at the same time not reading from a file with the -r option, report to stderr, once per second, the number of packets captured. In Solaris, FreeBSD, and possibly other operating systems this periodic update currently can cause loss of captured packets on their way from the kernel to tcpdump.

The -vv option, even more verbose output. For example, additional fields are printed from NFS reply packets, and SMB packets are fully decoded.

The -vvv option, even more verbose output. For example, telnet SB … SE options are printed in full. With -X Telnet options are printed in hex as well.

 

Specify the capture size of each captured packets (-s snaplen)

By default, tcpdump will capture 262144 bytes. However, in some situations, you may not need to capture the default packet length. If you need to reduce the snapshot size below the default, you should limit snaplen to the smallest number that will capture the protocol information you’re interested in. Setting snaplen to 0 sets it to the default of 262144, for backward compatibility with recent older versions of tcpdump.

For example, if we want to capture only the first 14 bytes of the packets:

$ sudo tcpdump -s 14

 

Different timestamps options (-t, -tt, -ttt, -tttt, -ttttt)

By default, tcpdump will show as a timestamp for each packet, the local time of the system. But we can change this:

  • -t – Do NOT print a timestamp on each dump line.
  • -tt – Print the timestamp, as seconds since January 1, 1970, 00:00:00, UTC, and fractions of a second since that time, on each dump line.
  • -ttt – Print a delta (microsecond or nanosecond resolution depending on the –time-stamp-precision option) between the current and previous line on each dump line. The default is microsecond resolution.
  • -tttt – Print a timestamp, as hours, minutes, seconds, and fractions of a second since midnight, preceded by the date, on each dump line.
  • -ttttt – Print a delta (microsecond or nanosecond resolution depending on the –time-stamp-precision option) between current and first line on each dump line. The default is microsecond resolution.

In some situations, it’s useful to see the delta time between two packets, for example between a database request and the answer.

 

Identify the type of packets on the output (TCP Flag)

From this example below, we can say that the packet is a SYN-ACK packet. We can identify this by the Flags [S.] of the output, in red.

$ sudo tcpdump -tn src port 80
IP 172.217.168.68.80 > 10.0.2.15.32820: Flags [S.], seq 70400001, ack 171581542, win 65535, options [mss 1460], length 0

Different types of packets have different flags:

  • [S] – SYN
  • [S.] – SYN-ACK
  • [.] – No Flag Set
  • [P] – PSH (Push Data)
  • [F] – FIN (Finish)
  • [R] – RST (Reset)

You can find more on TCP flags here: https://www.howtouselinux.com/post/tcp-flags

 

Grep tcpdump output (-l)

The -l option means “line-readable output”, it lets you see the traffic as you capture it, and helps using commands like grep. For example:

$ sudo tcpdump -vvAls0 | grep 'GET'

As you can see, we usually combine this with -s0 to be sure to capture everything. See (-s snaplen) just above.

 

Even more complex filtering

TCP header search example

With tcpdump, we can search into the different fields of the TCP header for example. First, let’s take a look at the TCP header (source Wikipedia):

TCP header

Now, let’s say we want to filter all packets with the ACK flag set. So first, we specify the TCP byte, with TCP[byte_number], so TCP[13] in this case. See the byte number 13, for the flags, after the 4 bits of “data offset” and the 3 bits of “reserved”.

Then, we can specify the location within this byte. From right to left: FIN = 0, SYN = 2, RST = 4, PSH = 8, ACK = 16, etc… (yes, we specify this in decimal). So if we want to filter the ACK, we write it like this: TCP[13] & 16.

So, finally, if we want to see all packets with the ACK flag set (different to 0), we can do:

$ sudo tcpdump 'tcp[13] & 16 != 0'

IP header search example

We can do the same with the IP header, for example, to filter based on the ToS or DSCP value.

The ToS field is the second byte of the IP header, so byte number 1, because we start counting from 0. So we can search into IP[1] for ToS/DSCP values.

So, to find any packet with a non-zero ToS or DSCP value, we can do like this:

$ sudo tcpdump -v -n ip and ip[1]!=0

 

Then, a more complex use-case is to search for a specific DSCP value, let’s say we want to get all packets with expedite forwarding DSCP tag (DSCP EF), like voice packets in an enterprise network.

First, we have to remember some basic QoS rules: DSCP value of EF = 46 in decimal = 101110 in binary.

To this, we have to add the two first bits of ECN to build the entire ToS byte: = 10111000 = a decimal value of 184 = 0xB8 in hex.

Then, to filter this value, we could make:

$ sudo tcpdump -v -n 'ip and (ip[1] == 184)'

To make it easier, without having to convert DSCP 46 to ToS 184, let’s use a trick to ignore the first two bits and search the exact DSCP value:

$ sudo tcpdump -v -n 'ip and (ip[1] & 252) >> 2 == 46'

So, what happened there?

The 252 is the decimal value for 11111100, this is to ignore the value of the ECN bits, with the “bitwise AND”, written here with “&”. It also works without this, but with this, we are sure to take all the packets, whatever the value of the ECN bits.

Then, the “>>” is to eliminate the two first ECN bits from the value.  To “right-shift” them if you prefer. Like this, we can use the correct DSCP value, in decimal or hex:

$ sudo tcpdump -v -n 'ip and (ip[1] & 252) >> 2 == 0x2e'

We can verify with a ping to 8.8.8.8 with a DSCP value set to EF (DSCP 46 / 101110 == ToS 184 / 10111000):

$ ping 8.8.8.8 -Q 184
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) 56(84) octets de données.
64 octets de 8.8.8.8 : icmp_seq=1 ttl=118 temps=3.79 ms
64 octets de 8.8.8.8 : icmp_seq=2 ttl=118 temps=4.09 ms
64 octets de 8.8.8.8 : icmp_seq=3 ttl=118 temps=3.85 ms

$ sudo tcpdump -i 1 -t -v -n 'ip and (ip[1] & 252) >> 2 == 46'
IP (tos 0xb8, ttl 64, id 51956, offset 0, flags [DF], proto ICMP (1), length 84)
10.0.2.15 > 8.8.8.8: ICMP echo request, id 15, seq 54, length 64
IP (tos 0xb8, ttl 63, id 10245, offset 0, flags [DF], proto ICMP (1), length 84)
8.8.8.8 > 10.0.2.15: ICMP echo reply, id 15, seq 54, length 64
IP (tos 0xb8, ttl 64, id 52091, offset 0, flags [DF], proto ICMP (1), length 84)
10.0.2.15 > 8.8.8.8: ICMP echo request, id 15, seq 55, length 64

The same in hex:

$ sudo tcpdump -i 1 -t -v -n 'ip and (ip[1] & 0xfc) >> 2 == 0x2e'
IP (tos 0xb8, ttl 64, id 57009, offset 0, flags [DF], proto ICMP (1), length 84)
10.0.2.15 > 8.8.8.8: ICMP echo request, id 15, seq 86, length 64
IP (tos 0xb8, ttl 63, id 10277, offset 0, flags [DF], proto ICMP (1), length 84)
8.8.8.8 > 10.0.2.15: ICMP echo reply, id 15, seq 86, length 64
IP (tos 0xb8, ttl 64, id 57283, offset 0, flags [DF], proto ICMP (1), length 84)
10.0.2.15 > 8.8.8.8: ICMP echo request, id 15, seq 87, length 64

 

Everyday examples

 

Inspect HTTP traffic

Find HTTP User Agents

$ sudo tcpdump -vvAls0 | grep 'User-Agent:'
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/91.0.4472.101 Safari/537.36

Cleartext GET Requests

$ sudo tcpdump -vvAls0 | grep 'GET'
 GET /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1

Find HTTP Host Headers

$ sudo tcpdump -vvAls0 | grep 'Host:'
Host: www.google.com

Find HTTP Cookies

$ sudo tcpdump -vvAls0 | grep 'Set-Cookie|Host:|Cookie:'
Cookie: _ga=GA1.2.1819519503.1611300810; _fbp=fb.1.1611300810366.1600009966

Extract HTTP Request URL’s

$ sudo tcpdump -vnls0 | egrep -i "POST /|GET /|Host:"

 

 

Filter by traffic type

Find SSH Connections

$ sudo tcpdump 'tcp[(tcp[12]>>2):4] = 0x5353482D'

Note: This one works regardless of the port because it’s getting the banner response.

See the complex filtering part above for details.

Find DNS Traffic

$ sudo tcpdump -vvAs0 port 53

Find FTP Traffic

$ sudo tcpdump -vvAs0 port ftp or ftp-data

Find NTP Traffic

$ sudo tcpdump -vvAs0 port 123

 

Filter by TCP flag

See the complex filtering part above for details.

Show all ACK packets

$ sudo tcpdump 'tcp[13] & 16 != 0'

Show all PSH packets

$ sudo tcpdump 'tcp[13] & 8 != 0'

Show all RST packets

$ sudo tcpdump 'tcp[13] & 4 != 0'

Show all SYN packets

$ sudo tcpdump 'tcp[13] & 2 != 0'

Show all FIN packets

$ sudo tcpdump 'tcp[13] & 1 != 0'

Show all SYN-ACK packets

$ sudo tcpdump 'tcp[13] = 18'

 

QoS Filters

Show all IP packets with a non-zero TOS field (one byte TOS field is at offset 1 in IP header)

$ sudo tcpdump -v -n ip and ip[1]!=0

Show all IP packets with a DSCP value of EF (decimal 46)

$ sudo tcpdump -n -vvv 'ip and (ip[1] & 0xfc) >> 2 == 46'

 

Misc

Show icmp echo-request and echo-reply packets

$ sudo tcpdump -n icmp and 'icmp[0] = 8 or icmp[0] = 0'

The same, but to get any ICMP packets, except ping and ping-reply:

$ sudo tcpdump 'icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echo and icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echoreply'

Show ARP Packets, including the MAC address

$ sudo tcpdump -vv -e -nn ether proto 0x0806

Find Cleartext Passwords

$ sudo tcpdump port http or port ftp or port smtp or port imap or port pop3 or port telnet -lA | egrep -i -B5 'pass=|pwd=|log=|login=|user=|username=|pw=|passw=|passwd=|password=|pass:|user:|username:|password:|login:|pass |user '

Capture packets and write to multiple files, created every x time, with a timestamp into the filename

Here is an example to create a capture file every 10 seconds, so 6 capture files per minute, indefinitely, with the Month – Day – Hour – Minute – Seconds timestamp into the file name:

$ sudo tcpdump -G 10 -w test-%m-%d-%H-%M-%S.pcap

In this example, the -G option is equal to 10 seconds. So every 10 seconds we will have a new file. Please note that if we do not specify the Month and Day options, tcpdump will overwrite the files after 24 hours.

 

Read more

The official website of tcpdump

The online version of the man page of tcpdump

 


Other posts of the series

This post is part of a series of basic Linux Networking tips and tricks.
The other posts of this series are:

  1. The ip and nmcli commands
  2. The mtr command
  3. The ss and netstat commands
  4. The curl command
  5. tcpdump

 


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2 Thoughts to “Basic Linux Networking tips and tricks part-5: tcpdump”

  1. Ronny

    Cool Tutorial – thx!!!

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